The Irish Free State, comprising 4-fifths of Ireland, is declared, ending a five-year Irish struggle for independence from Britain. Like other autonomous nations of the former British Empire, Ireland was to stay element of the British Commonwealth, topic to the king symbolically. The Irish Free State later severed ties with Britain and was renamed Eire, and is currently called the Republic of Ireland.
English rule a lot more than the island of Ireland goes back to the 12th century, and Queen Elizabeth I of England encouraged the massive-scale immigration of Scottish Protestants in the 16th century. During ensuing centuries, a number of rebellions by Irish Catholics have already been put down because the Anglo-Irish minority extended their domination a lot more than the Catholic majority. Under absentee landlords, the Irish population was reduced to a subsistence diet program dependent on potatoes, so when a potato blight struck the united states in the 1840s, 1 million people starved to death while nearly two million much more fled to the United States.
A movement for Irish residence rule gained momentum in the late 19th century, and in 1916 Irish nationalists launched the Easter Rising against British rule in Dublin. The rebellion was crushed, but widespread agitation for independence continued. In 1919, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched a widespread and successful guerrilla campaign against British forces. In 1921, a cease-fire was declared, and in January 1922 a faction of Irish nationalists signed a peace treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining in the United Kingdom.
Civil war broke out even right before the declaration of the Irish Free State on December 6, 1922, and ended with the victory of the Irish Free State a lot more than the Irish Republican forces in 1923. A constitution adopted by the Irish women and men in 1937 declared Ireland to be “a sovereign, independent, democratic state,” and the Irish Free State was renamed Eire. Eire remained neutral during World War II, and in 1949 the Republic of Ireland Act severed the final remaining link with the Commonwealth.
Conflicts persisted a lot more than Northern Ireland, nonetheless, and the IRA, outlawed in the south, went underground to attempt to regain the northern counties still ruled by Britain. Violence between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland escalated in the first 1970s, also to date the fighting has claimed a lot more than 3,000 lives.